Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of melatonin and vitamin C as antioxidants on renal injury in chronic alcohol consumption.
Materials and methods: A total of 24 adult male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were used in the study. Rats were divided into four equal groups. Group I (control): rats were not fed on alcohol; Group II: rats were fed on alcohol; Group III: rats were fed on alcohol and 40 mg/kg vitamin C; and Group IV: rats were fed on alcohol and 4 mg/kg melatonin.
Results: Light microscopic examination revealed atrophic renal corpuscles, dilatation and congestion of the peritubular vessels, and renal corpuscles with obscure Bowman's space and a few foamy-appearing tubules due to alcohol consumption were observed. Expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was localized to glomerulus, distal, and collector tubules. eNOS staining decreased in alcohol treatment group and melatonin and vitamin C encore increased expression pattern of eNOS. Alcohol consumption increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities significantly in the alcohol consumption groups compared with that in the control group, while in melatonin give group just MDA level was decreased statistically significant and SOD and CAT activities were also decreased numerically compared with the alcohol consumption groups.
Conclusions: These results indicated that chronic alcohol consumption caused renal damage by increased lipid peroxidation and melatonin and vitamin C administration produced in some degree protection against alcohol-induced damage.