Improving the electrode performance of Ge through Ge@C core-shell nanoparticles and graphene networks

J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Feb 8;134(5):2512-5. doi: 10.1021/ja211266m. Epub 2012 Jan 30.


Germanium is a promising high-capacity anode material for lithium ion batteries, but it usually exhibits poor cycling stability because of its huge volume variation during the lithium uptake and release process. A double protection strategy to improve the electrode performance of Ge through the use of Ge@C core-shell nanostructures and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) networks has been developed. The as-synthesized Ge@C/RGO nanocomposite showed excellent cycling performance and rate capability in comparison with Ge@C nanoparticles when used as an anode material for Li ion batteries, which can be attributed to the electronically conductive and elastic RGO networks in addition to the carbon shells and small particle sizes of Ge. The strategy is simple yet very effective, and because of its versatility, it may be extended to other high-capacity electrode materials with large volume variations and low electrical conductivities.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Carbon / chemistry*
  • Electrodes
  • Germanium / chemistry*
  • Graphite / chemistry*
  • Nanoparticles / chemistry*
  • Particle Size
  • Surface Properties


  • Germanium
  • Carbon
  • Graphite