Electroencephalographic dipole source modeling of frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity

Neuropsychobiology. 2012;65(2):103-8. doi: 10.1159/000330011. Epub 2012 Jan 17.


Background: Frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (FIRDA) on electroencephalography (EEG) consists of a run of rhythmic delta waves with frontal predominance. Although FIRDA is a relatively common abnormal EEG finding, the underlying mechanisms that produce FIRDA remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the cortical source of FIRDA using dipole source modeling.

Methods: We selected EEG epochs, including typical FIRDAs, from EEG recordings obtained using 25 scalp electrodes on 5 subjects. We averaged these epochs by arranging the negative peaks of the delta waves at the Fp electrodes and estimated dipoles for nine averaged waveforms.

Results: Averaged waveforms were explained by a single-dipole model in seven FIRDAs and by a two-dipole model in the remaining two FIRDAs with high reliability. Estimated dipoles had a radial orientation with respect to the frontal pole and were located in the medial frontal region. The anterior cingulate cortex was the most common dipole location.

Conclusions: This is the first study to approach the fundamental FIRDA mechanism by dipole source modeling and to clarify that FIRDA may be generated from the medial frontal region, particularly from the anterior cingulate cortex.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Brain Mapping*
  • Delta Rhythm / physiology*
  • Electrodes
  • Electroencephalography*
  • Female
  • Frontal Lobe / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Young Adult