The association of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome with nephrolithiasis

Curr Opin Urol. 2012 Mar;22(2):154-9. doi: 10.1097/MOU.0b013e32834fc31f.


Purpose of review: This review describes the relationship between nephrolithiasis, vascular disease and metabolic syndrome.

Recent findings: There is increasing evidence that kidney stone formation is associated with a number of systemic problems including cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome and its components. Some of these associations are bidirectional. The reasons for these associations are not totally clear, but potential factors include metabolic responses associated with these disorders that promote a stone forming milieu in urine, environmental factors such as diet, oxidative stress and inflammation and molecular changes impacting the transport of certain analytes in urine.

Summary: Urologists need to be cognizant of these associations as they may be able to contribute to an early diagnosis of a significant medical problem, or provide counseling to patients to prevent their occurrence.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Nephrolithiasis / epidemiology*
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors