Immunoaffinity-purified DNA-polymerase-alpha--DNA-primase complex from calf thymus was phosphorylated in vitro by highly purified casein kinase II from the same tissue. Specific phosphorylation of the DNA-polymerizing alpha subunit and the primase-associated gamma subunit was observed. About 1 mol phosphate/mol polymerase--primase was incorporated. Despite this effect, neither the DNA polymerase nor the DNA primase activity were changed after phosphorylation by casein kinase II. Furthermore, dephosphorylation of polymerase--primase with alkaline phosphatase did not change the polymerase or the primase activity to a significant extent. Moreover, both alkaline phosphatase and casein kinase II had no effect on the processivity of DNA synthesis and on the lengths and amounts of primers formed by the DNA primase. Because DNA polymerase alpha maintained all its basic properties even after extensive treatment with alkaline phosphatase, it is unlikely that phosphorylation has a direct influence on the activities of the DNA-polymerase-alpha--DNA-primase complex. The possible influence of post-translational phosphorylation on the formation of a complex of polymerase alpha and its accessory proteins is discussed.