Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are usually involved in two opposite procedures related to cancer: initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer, as well as in all non-surgical therapeutic approaches for cancer, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and photodynamic therapy. This review is concentrated in new therapeutic strategies that take advantage of increased ROS in cancer cells to enhance therapeutic activity and selectivity. Novel biophotonic techniques for manipulation and characterization of drug delivery nanosystems in cancer therapy are discussed, including optical tweezers and atomic force microscopy. This review highlights how these techniques are playing a critical role in recent and future cancer fighting applications. We can conclude that Biophotonics and nanomedicine are the future for cancer biology and disease management, possessing unique potential for early detection, accurate diagnosis, dosimetry and personalized treatment of biomedical applications targeting cancer.
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