Red light-induced phytochrome relocation into the nucleus in Adiantum capillus-veneris

Mol Plant. 2012 May;5(3):611-8. doi: 10.1093/mp/ssr119. Epub 2012 Jan 20.


Phytochromes in seed plants are known to move into nuclei in a red light-dependent manner with or without interacting factors. Here, we show phytochrome relocation to the nuclear region in phytochrome-dependent Adiantum capillus-veneris spore germination by partial spore-irradiation experiments. The nuclear or non-nuclear region of imbibed spores was irradiated with a microbeam of red and/or far-red light and the localization of phytochrome involved in spore germination was estimated from the germination rate. The phytochrome for spore germination existed throughout whole spore under darkness after imbibition, but gradually migrated to the nuclear region following red light irradiation. Intracellular distribution of PHY-GUS fusion proteins expressed in germinated spores by particle bombardment showed the migration of Acphy2, but not Acphy1, into nucleus in a red light-dependent manner, suggesting that Acphy2 is the photoreceptor for fern spore germination.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adiantum / cytology*
  • Adiantum / genetics
  • Adiantum / metabolism*
  • Adiantum / radiation effects
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism*
  • Cell Nucleus / radiation effects*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant / radiation effects
  • Germination / genetics
  • Germination / radiation effects
  • Intracellular Space / metabolism
  • Intracellular Space / radiation effects
  • Light*
  • Phytochrome / genetics
  • Phytochrome / metabolism*
  • Protein Transport / radiation effects
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism
  • Transcription, Genetic / radiation effects


  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Phytochrome