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. 2011 Sep;72(6):501-508.
doi: 10.1002/ddr.20456.

New Regimens for Reducing the Duration of the Treatment of Drug-Susceptible Pulmonary Tuberculosis

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Free PMC article

New Regimens for Reducing the Duration of the Treatment of Drug-Susceptible Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Marcus B Conde et al. Drug Dev Res. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important health problem worlwide. The structure necessary for delivering TB treatment and implementing the directly observed treatment accounts for more than two-thirds of its final cost. Furthemore, although with efficacy greater than 90%, the effectiveness of present treatment regimens ranges from 55-85%, depending on the setting, mainly due to poor adherence. Duration of treatment with the current first-line anti-TB drugs is a minimum of 6 months. Reducing the duration of the treatment from six to two months or less could result in significant increase of adherence to treatment and cost reduction. The aim of this review is to highlight potential new agents or new drug combinations that could reduce the time of treatment of drug-susceptible TB, currently under study or recently evaluated through clinical trials. We conducted a literature search in the English language for clinical studies as well as an electronic computer-assisted and manual search. The literature search was conducted on November 2010, using MEDLINE (2000-2010), EMBASE (2000-2010) and the National Institute of Health (NIH) Clinical Trials Register database (2000-2010). Most of the new agents identified as anti-TB drug candidates are still in the preclinical phases. Nitroimidazole-PA-824 and fluoroquinolones are evaluated while two first line drugs - rifampicin and rifapentine -are re-evaluated to optimize their efficacy in new ultra-short anti-TB regimens through phases II/III clinical studies. A summary of the studies are presented, with their potential to change recommendations for TB treatment in the near future.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of interest: none

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