Placental growth factor (PlGF) and its receptor vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) play an important role in pathological conditions related to angiogenesis, vascular leakage, and inflammation. This study investigated their contributions to inflammation and the formation of edema in allergic asthma. The expression of PlGF and VEGFR1 was measured in induced sputum of patients with asthma (n = 11) and healthy subjects (n = 11), and in bronchial biopsies of house dust mite (HDM)-allergic patients stimulated with HDM allergens. The effects of the endonasal administration of human PlGF-2 and PlGF deficiency on inflammation and edema were evaluated in a murine model of allergic asthma. The migration of human neutrophils in response to hPlGF-2 was tested in vitro. The expression of PlGF and VEGFR1 was significantly higher in the sputum of patients with asthma, and in Der p 1-induced PlGF in biopsies from HDM-allergic patients. PlGF was increased in the bronchi of ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged mice compared with control mice (65 ± 17 pg/mg versus 18 ± 1 pg/mg, respectively; P < 0.01), and VEGFR1 was expressed in bronchial epithelium, endothelium (control mice), and inflammatory cells (OVA-challenged mice). The endonasal instillation of hPlGF-2 in wild-type, OVA-challenged mice led to an increase in bronchial neutrophils, lung tissue wet/dry ratio, and IL-17. PlGF-deficient mice showed lower numbers of BAL-infiltrating neutrophils, a reduced lung wet/dry ratio, and lower production of IL-17, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and granulocyte chemotactic protein-2/LPS-induced chemokine compared with wild-type, OVA-challenged mice. hPlGF-2 induced the migration of human neutrophils in vitro in a VEGFR1-dependent way. PlGF and its receptor VEGFR1 are up-regulated in allergic asthma and play a proinflammatory role by inducing tissue edema, and increasing tissue neutrophilia and the production of IL-17.