Impact of vitamin D deficiency on the productivity of a health care workforce

J Occup Environ Med. 2012 Feb;54(2):117-21. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e318240df1e.


Objective: To define the relationship between vitamin D status and employee presenteeism in a large sample of health care employees.

Methods: Prospective observation study of 10,646 employees of a Midwestern-integrated health care system who completed an on-line health risk appraisal questionnaire and were measured for 25-hydroxyvitamin D.

Results: Measured differences in productivity due to presenteeism were 0.66, 0.91, and 0.75 when comparing employees above and below vitamin D levels of 20 ng/mL, 30 ng/mL, and 40 ng/mL, respectively. These productivity differences translate into potential productivity savings of 0.191%, 0.553%, and 0.625%, respectively, of total payroll costs.

Conclusions: Low vitamin D status is associated with reduced employee work productivity. Employee vitamin D assessment and replenishment may represent a low-cost, high-return program to mitigate risk factors and health conditions that drive total employer health care costs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Absenteeism
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Efficiency, Organizational / economics
  • Efficiency, Organizational / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • Health Personnel / economics
  • Health Personnel / statistics & numerical data*
  • Health Surveys / methods
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D / economics
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / economics
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / epidemiology*
  • Young Adult


  • Vitamin D