The cecal tonsil of broiler is known as a secondary lymphoid tissue, which is involved in antigen-specific humoral immune responses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary vanadium on the tissue distribution and quantity of immunoglobulin A-positive (IgA(+)) cell in the cecal tonsil by immunohistochemistry. Simultaneously, the changes in interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) contents in the cecal tonsil were also quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 420 one-day-old avian broilers were divided into six groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet (control diet) or the same diet supplemented respectively with 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 mg/kg of vanadium in the form of ammonium metavanadate for 42 days. The results showed that the population of the IgA(+) cells in the cecal tonsil were significantly lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in the 45 and 60 mg/kg groups than that in the control group. Meanwhile, IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α contents in the cecal tonsil were significantly decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in the 30, 45 and 60 mg/kg groups in comparison with those of the control group. However, IL-6 content in the cecal tonsil was only decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in 60 mg/kg at 14 and 28 days of age. In conclusion, dietary vanadium in excess of 30 mg/kg reduced the numbers of the IgA(+) cells and changed the contents of the abovementioned cytokines in the cecal tonsil, which may finally impact the function of local mucosal humoral immunity in broilers.