Comparison of two methods for noninvasive determination of carotenoids in human and animal skin: Raman spectroscopy versus reflection spectroscopy

J Biophotonics. 2012 Jul;5(7):550-8. doi: 10.1002/jbio.201100080. Epub 2012 Jan 23.


Based on compelling in vivo and in vitro studies on human skin, carotenoids are thought to be of great interest as powerful antioxidants acting to prevent free-radical-induced damages, including premature skin ageing and the development of skin diseases such as cancer. Among the available techniques that are suitable for noninvasive determination of carotenoids in human skin, are resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) and reflection spectroscopy (RS). For RS, a LED-based miniaturized spectroscopic system (MSS) was developed for noninvasive measurement of carotenoids in human skin. The optimization and subsequent calibration of the MSS was performed with the use of RRS. A strong correlation between the carotenoid concentration determined by the RS and for the RRS system was achieved for human skin in vivo (R = 0.88) and for bovine udder skin in vitro (R = 0.81).

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Carotenoids / analysis*
  • Carotenoids / metabolism
  • Cattle
  • Humans
  • Light
  • Middle Aged
  • Skin / metabolism*
  • Spectrum Analysis, Raman / instrumentation
  • Spectrum Analysis, Raman / methods*
  • Young Adult


  • Carotenoids