CD10 was first identified in tumor cells of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Most studies on CD10 expression have dealt with tumor pathology. Since no data are available for specific role in the fetal kidney, this study aimed at investigating CD10 expression during the different phases of renal embryogenesis. To this end, the expression of CD10 was evaluated in the kidney of two human fetus and in three newborns. In both fetuses, immunostaining for CD10 was compartmentalized and mainly concentrated in the mid-deep cortex. Reactivity for CD10 was stronger in the glomerular epithelium, in proximal tubules and in metanephric mesenchymal cells. At 25 weeks of gestation, CD10 was also detected in the subcapsular regions, including some pretubular aggregates of cap mesenchymal cells and renal vesicles. At 34 weeks of gestation, we observed an increased immunoreactivity for CD10 in visceral and parietal glomerular epithelium. At 39 weeks of gestation, CD10 was also expressed in the collecting tubules and in the Henle loops. Our data show a strong expression of CD10 in all stage of human kidney development, characterized by dynamic changes and support the hypothesis that CD10 plays a relevant role in renal embryogenesis.