Background: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is associated with a combination of hypoxic and toxic renal tubular damage, renal endothelial dysfunction and altered intra-renal microcirculation. Recently, sodium butyrate (SB) has been focused on since it possesses anti-inflammatory activities. Thus, based on the lack of information on the effects of SB in acute kidney injury (AKI), we investigated the possible effects of SB after CIN in rats.
Methods: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: (1 sham) control, (2 MI) AKI treated with contrast medium and (3 MI + SB) AKI plus SB. Six days after contrast administration, blood and kidney were removed for the determination of creatinine, interleukin (IL)-6 levels, oxidative damage parameters and histologic analyses. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), pIκBα and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) protein content were determined by immunoblotting.
Results: After 6 days, the levels of creatinine increased significantly in the MI group, and this was attenuated using SB. SB treatment was associated with a decrease on the levels of lipid peroxidation, but not the protein oxidation, and IL-6 levels, as well as tubular damage. These effects are probably mediated, in part, by a decrease on the activation of NF-κB in the kidney, but not alteration in pVASP content.
Conclusions: The current experiment suggests that NF-κB induced an inflammatory response after CIN and SB could inhibit NF-κB expression protecting against CIN in rats.