Pharmacodynamic behavior of branded and biosimilar enoxaparin was compared in a crossover study in primates. Blood samples collected at baseline and at 1, 4, 6, and 28 hours post-subcutaneous administration of Lovenox or Fibrinox were evaluated using clot-based and amidolytic assays. Anti-Xa levels following Fibrinox and Lovenox administration were not different. Anti-IIa levels were significantly higher in Lovenox-treated animals 1 to 6 hours post-administration. Higher drug levels were measured by Heptest in Fibrinox-treated animals from 4 to 6 hours. Pharmacokinetic differences were not observed using anti-Xa or Heptest assays. The area under the curve (anti-IIa) following Lovenox treatment was significantly larger than following Fibrinox treatment. When drug levels (anti-IIa) were plotted against anti-Xa or Heptest drug levels, a hysteretic relationship which was distinct for Fibrinox- and Lovenox-treated primates was observed suggesting a lack of bioequivalence for the low-molecular-weight heparin tested. In vivo behavior is an important consideration for defining pharmacoequivalence of complex biologic drugs.