Long-term outcomes in acute pulmonary thromboembolism: the incidence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and associated risk factors

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2012 Jun;18(3):281-8. doi: 10.1177/1076029611431956. Epub 2012 Jan 23.


The long-term outcomes of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) and/or incidence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) are not well documented. Three hundred twenty-five consecutive cases objectively diagnosed with PTE monitored for an average 16.3 months (6-50.7 months) were investigated. Data concerning recurrence, residual thrombus, mortality, and CTEPH in particular were collected. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension frequency acute first episode of PTE was 4.6%. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension developed within 12 months after PTE attack in approximately 80% of patients and it did not occur after 2 years. Residual chronic thrombus was determined at the 3rd month in 48% of cases post-PTE, at the 6th month in 27.4%, and at the 12th month in 18.2%. At multivariate regression analysis, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure > 50 mm Hg, hazard ratio: 10.1 (95% confidence interval: 4.1-71.2) were predictors of CTEPH. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension develops as a serious complication in a significant number of cases with PTE. Closer monitoring of high-risk cases in particular is important in terms of early diagnosis and treatment.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Blood Pressure
  • Chronic Disease
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / complications
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / diagnosis
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / epidemiology*
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / physiopathology
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / therapy
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Pulmonary Embolism / diagnosis
  • Pulmonary Embolism / epidemiology*
  • Pulmonary Embolism / etiology
  • Pulmonary Embolism / physiopathology
  • Pulmonary Embolism / therapy
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors