Should Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery and Genital Piercing Be Regarded Ethically and Legally as Female Genital Mutilation?

BJOG. 2012 Mar;119(4):389-92. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.03260.x. Epub 2012 Jan 25.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Body Modification, Non-Therapeutic / ethics
  • Body Modification, Non-Therapeutic / legislation & jurisprudence
  • Body Piercing / ethics*
  • Body Piercing / legislation & jurisprudence*
  • Circumcision, Female / ethics*
  • Circumcision, Female / legislation & jurisprudence*
  • Coercion
  • Developing Countries
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Risk Assessment
  • United Kingdom
  • Vulva / surgery*