Adoption of pharmacogenomic testing by US physicians: results of a nationwide survey

Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Mar;91(3):450-8. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2011.306. Epub 2012 Jan 25.


To develop a benchmark measure of US physicians' level of knowledge and extent of use of pharmacogenomic testing, we conducted an anonymous, cross-sectional, fax-based, national survey. Of 397,832 physicians receiving the survey questionnaire, 10,303 (3%) completed and returned it; the respondents were representative of the overall US physician population. The factors associated with the decision to test were evaluated using χ(2) and multivariate logistic regression. Overall, 97.6% of responding physicians agreed that genetic variations may influence drug response, but only 10.3% felt adequately informed about pharmacogenomic testing. Only 12.9% of physicians had ordered a test in the previous 6 months, and 26.4% anticipated ordering a test in the next 6 months. Early and future adopters of testing were more likely to have received training in pharmacogenomics, but only 29.0% of physicians overall had received any education in the field. Our findings highlight the need for more effective physician education on the clinical value, availability, and interpretation of pharmacogenomic tests.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Attitude of Health Personnel*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies / methods
  • Data Collection / methods
  • Female
  • Genetic Testing / methods*
  • Genetic Variation
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Pharmacogenetics*
  • Practice Patterns, Physicians'*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • United States
  • Young Adult