To develop a benchmark measure of US physicians' level of knowledge and extent of use of pharmacogenomic testing, we conducted an anonymous, cross-sectional, fax-based, national survey. Of 397,832 physicians receiving the survey questionnaire, 10,303 (3%) completed and returned it; the respondents were representative of the overall US physician population. The factors associated with the decision to test were evaluated using χ(2) and multivariate logistic regression. Overall, 97.6% of responding physicians agreed that genetic variations may influence drug response, but only 10.3% felt adequately informed about pharmacogenomic testing. Only 12.9% of physicians had ordered a test in the previous 6 months, and 26.4% anticipated ordering a test in the next 6 months. Early and future adopters of testing were more likely to have received training in pharmacogenomics, but only 29.0% of physicians overall had received any education in the field. Our findings highlight the need for more effective physician education on the clinical value, availability, and interpretation of pharmacogenomic tests.