Environmental enrichment alters glial antigen expression and neuroimmune function in the adult rat hippocampus

Brain Behav Immun. 2012 Mar;26(3):500-10. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2012.01.003. Epub 2012 Jan 20.


Neurogenesis is a well-characterized phenomenon within the dentate gyrus (DG) of the adult hippocampus. Environmental enrichment (EE) in rodents increases neurogenesis, enhances cognition, and promotes recovery from injury. However, little is known about the effects of EE on glia (astrocytes and microglia). Given their importance in neural repair, we predicted that EE would modulate glial phenotype and/or function within the hippocampus. Adult male rats were housed either 12 h/day in an enriched environment or in a standard home cage. Rats were injected with BrdU at 1 week, and after 7 weeks, half of the rats from each housing group were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and cytokine and chemokine expression was assessed within the periphery, hippocampus and cortex. Enriched rats had a markedly blunted pro-inflammatory response to LPS within the hippocampus. Specifically, expression of the chemokines Ccl2, Ccl3 and Cxcl2, several members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β were all significantly decreased following LPS administration in EE rats compared to controls. EE did not impact the inflammatory response to LPS in the cortex. Moreover, EE significantly increased both astrocyte (GFAP+) and microglia (Iba1+) antigen expression within the DG, but not in the CA1, CA3, or cortex. Measures of neurogenesis were not impacted by EE (BrdU and DCX staining), although hippocampal BDNF mRNA was significantly increased by EE. This study demonstrates the importance of environmental factors on the function of the immune system specifically within the brain, which can have profound effects on neural function.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Astrocytes / immunology*
  • Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor / metabolism
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Chemokines / metabolism
  • Corticosterone / immunology
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Dentate Gyrus / immunology*
  • Dentate Gyrus / metabolism
  • Doublecortin Protein
  • Environment*
  • Gene Expression
  • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism
  • Hippocampus / immunology*
  • Hippocampus / metabolism
  • Inflammation Mediators / immunology
  • Inflammation Mediators / metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Male
  • Microfilament Proteins / metabolism
  • Microglia / immunology*
  • Neurogenesis*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley


  • Aif1 protein, rat
  • Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins
  • Chemokines
  • Cytokines
  • Dcx protein, rat
  • Doublecortin Protein
  • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Microfilament Proteins
  • Corticosterone