Esophageal disease has been reported in 70% to 90% of patients with scleroderma, of whom nearly 50% will have reflux esophagitis. The combined motility disorder of low LES pressure and aperistalsis of the esophageal body makes scleroderma patients especially susceptible to severe gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Symptomatic GERD is a common problem in pregnancy, affecting 30% to 50% of women. Hormonal effects of estrogen and progesterone likely promote GERD by compromising LES function. Fortunately, the problem is usually relieved with delivery of the baby. Although difficult to quantitate, the reflux of both acid and especially alkaline material may be a common sequela of many types of gastric surgery. Medical therapy binding bile salts usually does not bring relief. The Rouxen-Y biliary diversion operation is the best solution for this problem. GERD complicates the treatment of achalasia after 10% of Heller myotomies and 2% of pneumatic dilatations. Nearly 50% of patients with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome have esophagitis, which may be more difficult to treat than their ulcer disease.