Objectives: The anti-cariogenic properties of the phenolic fraction from the pomace of Vitis coignetiae (VcPP) were evaluated by in vitro assays and compared with fruit juices from V. coignetiae and common grapes and with other phenolic fractions. The effects of VcPP against the biofilm of Streptococcus mutans were investigated.
Design: Sucrose-dependent biofilm formation by S. mutans cultured in the presence of VcPP was measured by crystal violet dye uptake. Inhibition of adhesion to the saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (sHA) beads was quantified using fluorescent-labelled cells. The MIC for S. mutans was determined by colony counting on agar plates containing VcPP. The ability of VcPP to inhibit glucan synthesis by three distinct recombinant glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) was assessed by quantifying the production of water-soluble and -insoluble polysaccharides in bacterial cultures. In addition, the buffering effect of VcPP in cultures of S. mutans was evaluated.
Results: VcPP reduced adhesion of S. mutans to sHA and biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner. The MIC of VcPP was 7.50mg/ml. VcPP inhibited GtfB activity associated with the synthesis of water-insoluble glucans. It also inhibited GtfD activity associated with the synthesis of water-soluble glucans at a concentration which was lower than that used for inhibition of GtfB. VcPP had no effect on acidification associated with glucose utilization by S. mutans.
Conclusions: The current study supports the potential of VcPP as a food additive for reducing caries by inhibiting adhesion to the tooth surface and GtfD-mediated soluble glucan synthesis.
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