Objectives: To determine associations between body mass index and sleep on blood pressure in a 5-year period from childhood to adolescence.
Study design: Study consisted of a longitudinal, community-based sample of 334 children recruited at ages 6 through 11 years. Each participant underwent in-home polysomnography initially and then 5 years later. Individual systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were calculated at both points during wake periods and classified as hypertensive when SBP or DBP was ≥ 95th standardized percentiles for height and weight.
Results: Hypertension was present in 3.6% of the sample at time one and increased to 4.2% 5 years later. Obesity prevalence increased from 15.0% to 19.5%. Normal changes in sleep architecture were observed in the sample. With random effects modeling, which controlled for age, sex, and ethnicity, change in obesity status and decrease in total sleep time were indicated to be associated with increases in SBP. Change in obesity status was also associated with increases in DBP in the 5-year period. A trend for sleep-disordered breathing to increase SBP was noted.
Conclusions: Increases in SBP and DBP were associated with increasing body mass index and decreased total sleep time in a 5-year period from childhood to adolescence.
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