Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 is a novel cellular target of atrial natriuretic peptide signaling in renal epithelial cells

Cell Signal. 2012 May;24(5):1100-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2012.01.006. Epub 2012 Jan 17.


Two classes of guanylyl cyclases (GC) form intracellular cGMP. One is a receptor for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and the other for nitric oxide (NO). The ANP receptor guanylyl cyclase (GC-A) is a membrane-bound, single subunit protein. Nitric oxide activated or soluble guanylyl cyclases (NOGC) are heme-containing heterodimers. These have been shown to be important in cGMP mediated regulation of arterial vascular resistance and renal sodium transport. Recent studies have shown that cGMP produced by both GCs is compartmentalized in the heart and vascular smooth muscle cells. To date, however, how intracellular cGMP generated by ANP and NO is compartmentalized and how it triggers specific downstream targets in kidney cells has not been investigated. Our studies show that intracellular cGMP formed by NO is targeted to cytosolic and cytoskeletal compartments whereas cGMP formed by ANP is restricted to nuclear and membrane compartments. We used two dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF to identify distinct sub-cellular targets that are specific to ANP and NO signaling in HK-2 cells. A nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleo protein A1 (hnRNP A1) is preferentially phosphorylated by ANP/cGMP/cGK signaling. ANP stimulation of HK-2 cells leads to increased cGK activity in the nucleus and translocation of cGK and hnRNP A1 to the nucleus. Phosphodiestaerase-5 (PDE-5 inhibitor) sildenafil augmented ANP-mediated effects on hnRNPA1 phosphorylation, translocation to nucleus and nuclear cGK activity. Our results suggest that cGMP generated by ANP and SNAP is differentially compartmentalized, localized but not global changes in cGMP, perhaps at different sub-cellular fractions of the cell, may more closely correlate with their effects by preferential phosphorylation of cellular targets.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Active Transport, Cell Nucleus
  • Atrial Natriuretic Factor / physiology*
  • Cell Nucleus / enzymology
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism
  • Cyclic GMP / metabolism
  • Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II
  • Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Epithelial Cells / drug effects
  • Epithelial Cells / enzymology
  • Epithelial Cells / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Guanylate Cyclase / metabolism
  • Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A1
  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Kidney / cytology*
  • Nitric Oxide Donors / pharmacology
  • Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Phosphorylation
  • Piperazines / pharmacology
  • Protein Transport
  • Purines / pharmacology
  • S-Nitroso-N-Acetylpenicillamine / pharmacology
  • Signal Transduction
  • Sildenafil Citrate
  • Subcellular Fractions / metabolism
  • Sulfones / pharmacology


  • Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A1
  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B
  • Nitric Oxide Donors
  • Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors
  • Piperazines
  • Purines
  • Sulfones
  • hnRNPA1 protein, human
  • S-Nitroso-N-Acetylpenicillamine
  • Atrial Natriuretic Factor
  • Sildenafil Citrate
  • Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II
  • Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • PRKG2 protein, human
  • Guanylate Cyclase
  • Cyclic GMP