Advances continue to be made in the field of pediatric oncology ever since treatment for childhood cancer began in 1948. Since then, there has been exponential progress in the care for children with cancer as reflected in the current survival rates, which approach 90%. With such incredible survival rates, the number of childhood cancer survivors has increased significantly, with present estimates being above 300,000 in the United States alone. This success has, however, not been without cost. Long-term studies of cancer survivors have brought to light specific adverse effects of therapy, which often present years after treatment is finished, termed “late effects.” Over the years, it has become apparent that monitoring for and treating these late effects of treatment is essential for the continuing health of young cancer survivors. It is now well recognized that childhood cancer survivors require long-term follow-up care given by an integrated team of qualified and invested specialty-care providers in collaboration with their primary caregivers. These teams deliver care using a risk-based approach, following a systematic plan for lifelong screening,surveillance, and prevention that incorporates risks based on the previous cancer, cancer therapy, genetic predispositions,lifestyle behaviors, and co-morbid health conditions.