Surgical outcome of patients with perforation after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2012 May;22(4):371-7. doi: 10.1089/lap.2011.0392. Epub 2012 Jan 30.


Background: The most important criterion in the management of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)-related perforations is the delineation of the injury pattern. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in a retrospective manner the patients who undergo surgery due to ERCP-related perforations.

Patients and methods: Between January 2006 and December 2010, a total of 9209 ERCPs were performed at Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Teaching and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. From these, perforation was diagnosed in 52 patients (0.56%). Twenty-four patients (46.2%) underwent surgery. Patients were evaluated according to age, gender, ERCP indication, comorbid disease, the time between diagnosis and perforation, the time between ERCP and surgical intervention, radiological and clinical signs, localization of the perforation, surgical procedure, hospitalization period, and postoperative outcome.

Results: Twenty-four patients underwent surgery. Thirteen patients (54.1%) had lateral duodenal wall perforation, 4 patients (16.7%) had perforation in the afferent loop (these patients had Billroth-II gastroenterostomy at ERCP admission), 2 patients (8.3%) had bile duct perforation, and 1 patient (4.1%) had esophageal perforation. In 4 patients (16.7%), the localization of the perforation could not be found. Nine patients (37.5%) died in the postoperative period. Six patients had lateral duodenal wall perforation, 2 patients had afferent loop perforation, and one patient had esophagus perforation. Three patients died of nonsurgical reasons (myocardial infarction, serebrovascular occlusion, and cardiac dysrhythmia).

Conclusions: Duodenal wall perforations have a serious fatal outcome even if early surgical intervention is performed. In contrast to duodenal wall injuries, perivaterian and choledochal injuries have a better outcome.

MeSH terms

  • Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde / adverse effects*
  • Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde / mortality
  • Duodenal Diseases / diagnosis
  • Duodenal Diseases / etiology*
  • Duodenal Diseases / surgery*
  • Duodenum / injuries*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Perforation / diagnosis
  • Intestinal Perforation / etiology*
  • Intestinal Perforation / mortality
  • Intestinal Perforation / surgery*
  • Length of Stay
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Survival Rate
  • Treatment Outcome