Prevalence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 alleles in the Argentine population and implications for prescribing dosages of anticoagulants

Genet Mol Res. 2012 Jan 9;11(1):70-6. doi: 10.4238/2012.January.9.8.


Dicumarinic oral anticoagulants have a narrow therapeutic range and a great individual variability in response, which makes calculation of the correct dose difficult and critical. Genetic factors involved in this variability include polymorphisms of genes that encode the metabolic enzyme CYP2C9 and the target enzyme vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 (VKORC1); these polymorphisms can be associated with reduced enzymatic expression. We examined the frequency of the most relevant variants encoding CYP2C9 (alleles *1, *2 and *3) and VKORC1 (SNP -1639A>G) in the Argentinian population. Molecular typing was performed by PCR-RFLP on a randomly selected sample of 101 healthy volunteers from the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires gene bank. Fifty-seven subjects were identified as homozygous for CYP2C9*1 and 14 for *2, while 24 and 5 were heterozygous for *2 and *3 alleles; one individual was a composite heterozygote (*2/*3). When we examined VKORC1, 21 subjects were AA homozygous, 60 were AG heterozygotes and 20 were GG homozygotes. This is the first analysis of genotypic frequencies for CYP2C9 and VKORC1 performed in an Argentinian population. These allele prevalences are similar to what is known for Caucasian population, reflecting the European ancestor of our patient population, coming mostly from Buenos Aires city and surroundings. Knowledge of this prevalence information is instrumental for cost-effective pharmacogenomic testing in patients undergoing oral anticoagulation treatment.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Anticoagulants / administration & dosage*
  • Anticoagulants / therapeutic use
  • Argentina
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases / genetics*
  • Coumarins / administration & dosage*
  • Coumarins / therapeutic use
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency
  • Genetic Variation
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mixed Function Oxygenases / genetics*
  • Pharmacogenetics
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Vitamin K 1 / metabolism
  • Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases
  • Warfarin / administration & dosage
  • Young Adult


  • Anticoagulants
  • Coumarins
  • Warfarin
  • Vitamin K 1
  • coumarin
  • Mixed Function Oxygenases
  • CYP2C9 protein, human
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases
  • VKORC1 protein, human
  • Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases