Analysis of Gga null mice demonstrates a non-redundant role for mammalian GGA2 during development

PLoS One. 2012;7(1):e30184. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030184. Epub 2012 Jan 26.


Numerous studies using cultured mammalian cells have shown that the three GGAs (Golgi-localized, gamma-ear containing, ADP-ribosylation factor- binding proteins) function in the transport of cargo proteins between the trans- Golgi network and endosomes. However, the in vivo role(s) of these adaptor proteins and their possible functional redundancy has not been analyzed. In this study, the genes encoding GGAs1-3 were disrupted in mice by insertional mutagenesis. Loss of GGA1 or GGA3 alone was well tolerated whereas the absence of GGA2 resulted in embryonic or neonatal lethality, depending on the genetic background of the mice. Thus, GGA2 mediates a vital function that cannot be compensated for by GGA1and/or GGA3. The combined loss of GGA1 and GGA3 also resulted in a high incidence of neonatal mortality but in this case the expression level of GGA2 may be inadequate to compensate for the loss of the other two GGAs. We conclude that the three mammalian GGAs are essential proteins that are not fully redundant.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport / genetics*
  • Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport / physiology*
  • Animals
  • Animals, Newborn
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Embryo, Mammalian
  • Female
  • Growth and Development / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mammals / embryology
  • Mammals / genetics
  • Mammals / growth & development
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Multigene Family / physiology
  • Substrate Specificity / genetics


  • Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport
  • GGA adaptor proteins
  • GGA2 protein, human
  • GGA2 protein, mouse