The 3-D structure of human lactoferrin was first solved in atomic detail in 1987. Since that time, a variety of proven and postulated activities have been added to the original annotation of lactoferrin as an iron-binding protein. Structural studies have also expanded to include iron-bound and iron-free (apo) forms, mutants, and the lactoferrins of different species. In this review, we take the current information on both structure and function and show that the 3-D structure provides a useful framework for understanding some activities and also points to productive research directions that could help elucidate other reported functions. Some functions relate to iron binding where the role of lactoferrin is to scavenge and retain iron across a wide pH range. We specifically focus on functions that depend on the surface structure of the molecule, identifying features that may determine the many other protective properties of this multifunctional protein.