Prevalence and characteristics of Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) in the child population residing in Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India

Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2012 Feb;13(1):21-6. doi: 10.1007/BF03262836.


Most prevalence studies on Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) have been carried out in European countries and data from Asia especially south Asian populations are lacking.

Aim: To investigate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of MIH in children residing in a western region of India.

Method: A cross-sectional survey including 1,366 children from 5 age cohorts, 8-12 years, studying in primary schools or attending the University Department, was carried out in the area of Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. The dental examination was performed by a single well-trained and calibrated examiner in day light conditions. Full mouth inspection of wet teeth was conducted using the EAPD 2003 criteria for diagnosis of MIH. Results were recorded and statistically analysed using Chi-square test, independent sample t-test and Pearson correlations.

Results: Prevalence of MIH was 9.2% in the examined population. Males and females were equally affected. Among 12 index teeth involved in the examination, the most commonly affected were in descending order 46, 36, 16, 11 [FDI] and the least 42, 32, and 22. 17.4% of the cases revealed only molars involved, the remaining 72.6% having both molars and incisors affected; all four first permanent molars showed in 23% of the cases while no cases of only affected incisors were found. Of the MIH teeth 77.3% revealed mild defects and 22.7% severe defects. All incisors were mildly affected, as compared with only 67.1% of the molars, the remaining 32.9% being severely affected. As age increased, a statistically significant larger total number and severity level of affected teeth were recorded.

Conclusion: Prevalence of MIH using EAPD 2003 criteria was found to be similar to other studies evaluating children in different geographic locations such as Europe, South America etc. Using the EAPD standardised criteria, more studies should be conducted in other Indian regions, in order to further evaluate prevalence, characteristics and treatment needs for this clinically demanding condition.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dental Care for Children / standards*
  • Dental Enamel Hypoplasia / epidemiology*
  • Dental Enamel Hypoplasia / pathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incisor / pathology*
  • India / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Molar / pathology*
  • Prevalence
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Sex Distribution