How to manage HIV-infected patients with chronic kidney disease in the HAART era

Clin Exp Nephrol. 2012 Jun;16(3):363-72. doi: 10.1007/s10157-012-0585-7.


As human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients now live longer while receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), chronic kidney disease (CKD) has emerged as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among urban HIV population. Risk factors associated with CKD in such HIV-infected population include aging, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, co-infection with hepatitis C virus, low CD4 cell count, and high HIV viral load. Clinical experience has shown that HIV-infected individuals often have one or more concurrent risk factors for CKD. The cumulative effect of multiple risk factors on the development of CKD should be noted in this population. Glomerular disease directly related to HIV infection, so-called HIV-associated nephropathy, remains an important cause of CKD among limited HIV population of African descent. The impact of exposure to nephrotoxic antiretroviral agents on the development of kidney disease is both an old and a new concern. In particular, the association of tenofovir with kidney disease has been an area of great interest. The findings regarding tenofovir's adverse effect on long-term kidney function vary among studies. Early identification and treatment of kidney disease is imperative for reducing the burden of patients requiring dialysis in HIV-infected populations. Periodic monitoring of urinary albumin excretion, tubular parameters such as low-molecular-weight proteinuria, and the estimated glomerular filtration rate may be useful for early diagnosis of patients at risk for incident CKD. This review focuses on recent developments in epidemiology, risk factors, identification, estimation, and management of CKD in HIV-infected population in the HAART era.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adenine / adverse effects
  • Adenine / analogs & derivatives
  • Albuminuria / epidemiology
  • Anti-HIV Agents / adverse effects
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects
  • Blacks
  • Cystatin C / blood
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / drug therapy*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / epidemiology
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / etiology*
  • Organophosphonates / adverse effects
  • Prevalence
  • Proteinuria / epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Tenofovir
  • Viral Load


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Cystatin C
  • Organophosphonates
  • Tenofovir
  • Adenine