Five patients with liposarcomas of the thigh were studied using positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]2-deoxy-2-fluoroglucose (FDG). There were three low-grade tumors (all National Cancer Institute Grade 1 myxoid liposarcomas) and two high-grade tumors (both pleomorphic liposarcomas, Grades 2 and 3). The low-grade liposarcomas were easily identified with an average dose uptake ratio (DUR) of 1.38 +/- 0.045 (mean +/- SD). The high-grade lesions were more avid for FDG with a mean DUR of 2.45 +/- 0.24. There was a significant difference (p = 0.004) in the DUR for the two groups and the histological grade of malignancy was highly correlated with the DUR for FDG (Rho = 0.89). These findings suggest that FDG-PET may be useful for distinguishing between low-grade and high-grade liposarcomas.