Reference values for the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in octo- and nonagenarians

J Am Geriatr Soc. 1990 Oct;38(10):1093-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.1990.tb01371.x.


The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used in a population survey of all inhabitants of Leiden, the Netherlands, over 85 years (n = 1258). In this paper we report on 532 subjects without neurological or psychiatric disease. Results show that the median score and lowest quartile cut-off score remain high until the tenth decade (median score = 28, lowest quartile cut-off score = 26). Thus age, in itself, is not a major limitation in using the MMSE. In this study a comparatively low level of education (the majority had 6 to 7 years of education) did not affect the results on the MMSE in a negative way, nor did we find an association with the use of psychoactive drugs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Aging / physiology
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Cognition / physiology
  • Cognition Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Education
  • Female
  • Hearing Disorders
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mental Status Schedule*
  • Netherlands
  • Reference Values
  • Vision Disorders