Biocompatibility and biodegradation of a native porcine pericardium membrane: results of in vitro and in vivo examinations

Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. Jan-Feb 2012;27(1):146-54.


Purpose: The principle of guided tissue and bone regeneration has long been established for treating bone and periodontal defects. In addition to nonabsorbable barriers, various collagens have become accepted as membrane materials for separating the graft from soft tissue. However, collagen membranes differ significantly in their barrier function and biocompatibility. The objective of this pilot study was to examine, in vitro and in vivo, a novel native collagen membrane extracted from porcine pericardium.

Materials and methods: The morphologic structure of two different native collagen membranes (Remotis, Thommen Medical; Bio-Gide, Geistlich Biomaterials) was examined using a scanning electron microscope. For biocompatibility testing, membranes were incubated with SaOs-2 osteoblastlike cells. After 2 hours, 3 days, and 7 days, proliferation of the cells on the membranes was determined. Evaluation of the biodegradation pattern was performed in a dog model with simultaneous bone augmentation with Bio-Oss (Geistlich Biomaterials) or Cerabone (Botiss Biomaterials) in the lateral anterior maxilla in eight animals with histologic examination after 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks.

Results: An interconnective pore system was identifiable for Remotis, while Bio-Gide displayed a more fibrous structure. In vitro, Remotis showed considerable cell proliferation, which was significantly superior to that observed with Bio-Gide, especially after 7 days (2,910 ± 1,273 and 707 ± 706, respectively). In vivo, both membranes integrated into the surrounding tissue without any inflammatory reaction. Both membranes allowed early vascularization. However, considerable biodegradation was noted within 4 to 8 weeks with Bio-Gide, while Remotis resorbed generally within the first 8 to 12 week. Both membranes supported underlying bone formation.

Conclusion: Both examined membranes indicate a high level of biocompatibility. Both are resorbed without inflammation within 8 weeks (Bio-Gide) or 12 weeks (Remotis). The compact interconnective pericardium collagen of Remotis may have stabilized the resorption process.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biocompatible Materials*
  • Biotransformation
  • Bone Regeneration
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Collagen
  • Collagen Type I* / toxicity
  • Dogs
  • Guided Tissue Regeneration, Periodontal / methods*
  • Humans
  • Materials Testing
  • Maxilla / surgery
  • Membranes, Artificial*
  • Osteoblasts / drug effects
  • Pericardium*
  • Pilot Projects
  • Random Allocation
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Sus scrofa


  • Bio-Gide
  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Collagen Type I
  • Membranes, Artificial
  • Collagen