Background: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are widely abused for enhancing muscle mass, strength, growth and improving athletic performance.
Materials and methods: In recent years, many observational and interventional studies have shown important adverse cardiovascular effects of AAS abuse.
Conclusions: This review discusses established and future perspectives of novel molecular imaging techniques that may serve as potential tools for early detection of AAS-associated cardiovascular disorders.
© 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2011 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.