The pharmacokinetics of oxypurinol in people with gout

Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2012 Sep;74(3):477-89. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04207.x.


Aims: Our aim was to identify and quantify the sources of variability in oxypurinol pharmacokinetics and explore relationships with plasma urate concentrations.

Methods: Non-linear mixed effects modelling was applied to concentration-time data from 155 gouty patients with demographic, medical history and renal transporter genotype information.

Results: A one compartment pharmacokinetic model with first order absorption best described the oxypurinol concentration-time data. Renal function and concomitant medicines (diuretics and probenecid), but not transporter genotype, significantly influenced oxypurinol pharmacokinetics and reduced the between subject variability in the apparent clearance of oxypurinol (CL/F(m)) from 65% to 29%. CL/F(m) for patients with normal, mild, moderate and severe renal impairment was 1.8, 0.6, 0.3 and 0.18 l h(-1), respectively. Model predictions showed a relationship between plasma oxypurinol and urate concentrations and failure to reach target oxypurinol concentrations using suggested allopurinol dosing guidelines.

Conclusions: In conclusion, this first established pharmacokinetic model provides a tool to achieve target oxypurinol plasma concentrations, thereby optimizing the effectiveness and safety of allopurinol therapy in gouty patients with various degrees of renal impairment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Diuretics / pharmacology
  • Drug Interactions
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacokinetics
  • Female
  • Gout / physiopathology*
  • Gout Suppressants / pharmacokinetics
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Biological*
  • Nonlinear Dynamics
  • Oxypurinol / pharmacokinetics*
  • Probenecid / pharmacology
  • Renal Insufficiency / physiopathology*
  • Severity of Illness Index


  • Diuretics
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Gout Suppressants
  • Oxypurinol
  • Probenecid