Accessory molecules for Toll-like receptors and their function

Nat Rev Immunol. 2012 Feb 3;12(3):168-79. doi: 10.1038/nri3151.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential components of the innate immune system. Accessory proteins are required for the biosynthesis and activation of TLRs. Here, we summarize recent findings on TLR accessory proteins that are required for cell-surface and endosomal TLR function, and we classify these proteins based on their function as ligand-recognition and delivery cofactors, chaperones and trafficking proteins. Because of their essential roles in TLR function, targeting of such accessory proteins may benefit strategies aimed at manipulating TLR activation for therapeutic applications.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate / immunology*
  • Ligands
  • Mice
  • Toll-Like Receptors / immunology*


  • Ligands
  • Toll-Like Receptors