Background: Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) regulate cell proliferation and coordinate the cell cycle checkpoint response to DNA damage. Although inhibitors with varying selectivity to specific CDK family members have been developed, selective CDK4/6 inhibitors have emerged as the most attractive antineoplastic agents because of the importance of CDK4/6 activity in regulating cell proliferation and the toxic effects associated with inhibition of other CDKs (eg, CDK1 and CDK2).
Methods: FVB/N wild-type mice (n = 13) were used to evaluate carboplatin-induced myelosuppression in bone marrow by complete blood cell counts after treatment with the CDK4/6 inhibitor PD0332991. Genetically engineered murine models of retinoblastoma (Rb)-competent (MMTV-c-neu) and Rb-incompetent (C3-TAg) breast cancer (n = 16 MMTV-c-neu mice in the carboplatin plus vehicle control group, n = 17 MMTV-c-neu mice in the carboplatin plus PD0332991 group, n = 17 C3-TAg mice in the carboplatin plus vehicle control group, and n = 14 C3-TAg mice in the carboplatin plus PD0332991 group) were used to investigate the antitumor activity of PD0332991 alone or in combination with chemotherapy. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Results: Coadministration of PD0332991 with carboplatin compared with carboplatin alone in FVB/N wild-type mice increased hematocrit (51.2% vs 33.5%, difference = 17.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -26.7% to -8.6%, P < .001), platelet counts (1321 vs 758.5 thousand cells per μL, difference = 562.5 thousand cells per μL, 95% CI = -902.8 to -222.6, P = .002), myeloid cells (granulocytes and monocytes; 3.1 vs 1.6 thousand cells per μL, difference = 1.5 thousand cells per μL, 95% CI = -2.23 to -0.67, P < .001), and lymphocytes (7.9 vs 5.4 thousand cells per μL, difference = 2.5 thousand cells per μL, 95% CI = -4.75 to -0.18, P = .02). Daily administration of PD0332991 exhibited antitumor activity in MMTV-c-neu mice as a single agent. However, the combination of carboplatin plus PD0332991 decreased antitumor activity compared with carboplatin alone in Rb-competent mice (mean percent change in tumor volume at day 21 = -52.6% vs 3.7% for carboplatin and carboplatin plus PD0332991, respectively, difference = 56.3%, 95% CI = -109.0% to -3.6%, P = .04). In contrast, Rb-deficient tumors in C3-Tag mice were resistant to PD0332991, and coadministration of PD0332991 plus carboplatin had no effect on in vivo tumor growth (mean percent change in tumor volume at day 21 = 118.8% and 109.1% for carboplatin and carboplatin plus PD0332991, respectively, difference = 9.7%, 95% CI = -183.5% to 202.9%, P = .92). Finally, in tumor-bearing mice, coadministration of PD0332991 with carboplatin provided statistically significant protection of platelets (P = .04).
Conclusion: We believe that the present data support a possible role for CDK4/6 inhibitors in a majority of patients with advanced cancer: to either inhibit tumor growth in CDK4/6-dependent tumors or ameliorate the dose-limiting toxicities of chemotherapy in CDK4/6-indepdendent tumors. Our data also suggest CDK4/6 inhibitors should not be combined with DNA-damaging therapies, such as carboplatin, to treat tumors that require CDK4/6 activity for proliferation.