This study identified and characterized parasite antigens in sera from humans infected with Onchocerca volvulus. Immune complexes were precipitated from human sera with polyethylene glycol and analyzed by immunoblot with rabbit antibodies to O. volvulus. A 23-kDa parasite antigen was detected in sera from 17 of 23 Nigerian onchocerciasis patients and 5 of 10 endemic controls. Other parasite antigens with apparent molecular masses of 62, 66, and 70 kDa were less consistently observed. These antigens were not present in Nigerian or US nonendemic control sera, in sera from patients with various other parasitic infections, or in sera from US patients with autoimmune diseases. Biochemical studies indicated that these antigens are nonglycosylated acidic proteins that do not contain phosphorylcholine. These antigens may be useful as targets for improved diagnostic tests for onchocerciasis based on parasite antigen detection.