Hydrops fetalis is an excessive accumulation of fetal fluid. Hydrops is traditionally classified into either immune or non-immune hydrops (NIHF), but in practice, nowadays in the Western world >90% of hydrops is of non-immune origin. The basis of the disorder is an imbalance in the regulation of fetal fluid movement between the vascular and interstitial space. We previously suggested a diagnostic flow-chart for NIHF. In this short review we describe the main mechanisms leading to NIHF.
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