In-house human immunodeficiency virus-1 genotype resistance testing to determine highly active antiretroviral therapy resistance mutations in Hong Kong

Hong Kong Med J. 2012 Feb;18(1):20-4.


Objective: To determine the frequency of highly active antiretroviral therapy resistance mutations in the viral pol gene of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) genotypes that circulate in Hong Kong, by means of an in-house HIV-1 genotyping system.

Design: Retrospective study.

Setting: Two HIV clinics in Hong Kong.

Patients: A modified in-house genotyping resistance test was used to sequence the partial pol gene in 1165 plasma samples from 965 patients. The performance of our test was cross-compared with the US Food and Drug Administration-approved ViroSeq HIV-1 genotyping system. The results of genotyping were submitted to the Stanford HIV-1 drug resistance database for analysis.

Results: The cost-effective in-house genotypic resistance test (US$40) demonstrated comparable performance to the US Food and Drug Administration-approved ViroSeq system. The detection limit of this in-house genotypic resistance test could reach 400 copies/mL for both HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE, which were the predominant genotypes in Hong Kong. Drug resistance mutations were detected only in post-treatment samples from treatment-failure patients. However, there was no significant difference in the frequency of drug resistance mutations between subtype B and CRF01_AE.

Conclusion: Our cost-effective in-house genotypic resistance test detected no significant difference in drug resistance-related mutations frequencies between HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE in Hong Kong. A drug resistance-related mutations database for different HIV-1 genotypes should be established in Hong Kong to augment guidance for HIV treatment.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacology*
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods
  • Base Sequence
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Drug Resistance, Viral / genetics*
  • Genetic Techniques* / economics
  • Genotype
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / virology
  • HIV-1 / genetics*
  • HIV-1 / isolation & purification
  • Hong Kong
  • Humans
  • Mutation
  • RNA, Viral
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • RNA, Viral