Objective: To determine the frequency of highly active antiretroviral therapy resistance mutations in the viral pol gene of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) genotypes that circulate in Hong Kong, by means of an in-house HIV-1 genotyping system.
Design: Retrospective study.
Setting: Two HIV clinics in Hong Kong.
Patients: A modified in-house genotyping resistance test was used to sequence the partial pol gene in 1165 plasma samples from 965 patients. The performance of our test was cross-compared with the US Food and Drug Administration-approved ViroSeq HIV-1 genotyping system. The results of genotyping were submitted to the Stanford HIV-1 drug resistance database for analysis.
Results: The cost-effective in-house genotypic resistance test (US$40) demonstrated comparable performance to the US Food and Drug Administration-approved ViroSeq system. The detection limit of this in-house genotypic resistance test could reach 400 copies/mL for both HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE, which were the predominant genotypes in Hong Kong. Drug resistance mutations were detected only in post-treatment samples from treatment-failure patients. However, there was no significant difference in the frequency of drug resistance mutations between subtype B and CRF01_AE.
Conclusion: Our cost-effective in-house genotypic resistance test detected no significant difference in drug resistance-related mutations frequencies between HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE in Hong Kong. A drug resistance-related mutations database for different HIV-1 genotypes should be established in Hong Kong to augment guidance for HIV treatment.