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, 2, e0073

Vascular Patterning

Vascular Patterning

Simon Turner et al. Arabidopsis Book.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
Vein Pattern in an Arabidopsis Seedling. A cleared wild type (L.er) 11 day old seedling, photographed using dark-field optics. The tracheary elements refract light, and show up as bright white lines. Note the reticulated patterns of veins in the cotyledons and leaves, and the linear pattern in the hypocotyl and roots.
Figure 2.
Figure 2.
Vascular Differentiation in a Developing Leaf. A confocal image of a differentiating leaf. In the differentiating vein, striations corresponding to tracheary element secondary cell wall are clearly visible. Adjacent to and connected with the differentiating vein, the elongated procambial cells are also clearly visible.
Figure 3.
Figure 3.
Xylem development in a developing inflorescence stem. Transmission electron micrograph showing developing xylem in a vascular bundle from an Arabidopsis inflorescence stem. Mature protoxylem (mpx), mature metaxylem (mmx), developing metaxylem (dmx) and xylem parenchyma (xp) are indicated. Size bar = 7µm.
Figure 4.
Figure 4.
Organisation of the vascular tissue within the vascular cylinder of the developing hypocotyl. Transmission electron micrograph showing that primary vascular development is almost complete; maturation of the immature xylem vessel (iv) will link the mature xylem vessels (mv) to form a plate that spans the vascular tissue. The phloem tissue indicated by the presence of sieve tubes (st) and procambial cells are located in two domains either side of the xylem plate. The entire vascular cylinder is surrounded by the endodermis (en).
Figure 5.
Figure 5.
Diagram to illustrate the development of the vascular tissue within the primary root. Reprinted with permission from (Helariutta et al., 2000)
Figure 6.
Figure 6.
Secondary growth in the Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Toluidine blue stained, freehand sections differentiate between the lignified cell walls (blue) and the primary walls (red). Two distinct stages of development are marked (I and II). In the first phase only vessels are formed, whereas in stage II both vessels and fibers are formed.
Figure 7.
Figure 7.
Organization of wild type Arabidopsis inflorescence stems following primary vascular tissue development. Position of the phloem (ph), xylem (xy), pith (pi), interfascicular cells (if), endodermis (en), cortex (co) and epidermis (ep) are marked. Size bar = 100nm.
Figure 8.
Figure 8.
Differentiation of vascular tissue within the inflorescence stems. Sections showing vascular bundles close to the apical meristem (top) and base (bottom) of a single inflorescence stem. Phloem (ph), procambium (pc), protoxylem (px), mature metaxylem (mmx) and developing metaxylem (dmx) are indicated. Size bar = 12.5nm
Figure 9.
Figure 9.
Organisation of vascular tissue within a vascular bundle from the stem of an avb mutant plant. Xylem (xy) and phloem (ph) are indicated. Reproduced with permission from (Zhong et al., 1999).
Figure 10.
Figure 10.
Organisation of vascular tissue in the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem. Sections from the base of mature stems of wild type (top), pin1-1 (middle) and clavata1-8 (bottom) are shown. Size bar = 100nm
Figure 11.
Figure 11.
Reticulate Vein Patterns in Organs of Arabidopsis Plants. All tissue was fixed, cleared in chloral hydrate, and illuminated using dark field optics. (A) Cotyledon; (B) Leaf; (C) Sepal; (D) Petal. Xylem (x) and phloem (p) are indicated. Size bars = 1 mm
Figure 12.
Figure 12.
Vascular Cell Type Organization in the leaf. (A) Leaf primary vein, from a transverse section taken approximately half way down the leaf. (B) leaf minor vein. (C) Paradermal section of the primary and a secondary vein. The xylem (xy) and phloem (ph) are indicated. Size bars: A, B=50 µm, C=100 µm.
Figure 13.
Figure 13.
Vein Order Designation in Arabidopsis Cotyledons and Leaves. These dark field images of cleared cotyledons (A) and leaves (B) have been colorized so that the primary vein shows in red and the secondary veins are blue. Tertiary and quaternary veins have not been colored. Size bar =1 mm
Figure 14.
Figure 14.
Polar Auxin Transport Inhibitors Affect Leaf Vein Patterning. Dark field images of cleared leaves showing the leaf vein patterns. (A) Leaf from a plant grown in normal growth medium; (B) Leaf from a plant grown in the presence of 100 µm NPA, a polar auxin transport inhibitor. Size bars = 1 mm.
Figure 15.
Figure 15.
Reticulate Vein Patterns Mutant Phenotypes. Dark field images of cleared cotyledons and leaves from selected Arabidopsis mutants. (A) Wild type (Landsberg erecta) cotyledon vein pattern. (B) Wild type leaf vein pattern. (C-D) Vein patterns of axr6-3 cotyledon and leaf respectively. (E-F) Cotyledon and leaf vein patterns of sfc mutant. (G-H) Cotyledon and leaf vein pattern of a cvp1 mutant. (I-K) Vein pattern of the cvp2 mutant, (I) shows the cotyledon vein pattern, J shows the over-all leaf vein pattern, and K shows a higher magnification image from the lower right and portion of the same leaf as shown in J. (L) Leaf vein pattern of an as1-1mutant. (M) Leaf vein pattern of an as2-1 mutant. (N) Leaf vein pattern of a lop1 mutant. (O) Leaf vein pattern of pin1-1 mutant. Size bars = 1 mm.
Figure 16.
Figure 16.
Seedling of plant ectopically expressing KAN. Section through the hypocotyl and cotyledons of wild type (A) and plants transformed with a 35S::KAN construct (B). Note the absence of both a vascular cylinder and the apical meristem in plants overexpressing KAN. Reprinted by permission from Nature (411, 706-709) copyright (2001), Macmillan Publishers Ltd.
Figure 17.
Figure 17.
Inhibition of vascular bundle formation by auxin. Adapted from (Sachs 1966). (A) Following application of auxin to a partially separated section of a pea epicotyl, a new vascular bundle is induced that joins up with the main vascular cylinder. (B) If the experiment is repeated but with auxin also applied to the main vascular cylinder the newly formed vascular strand no longer joins to the existing vascular tissue.
Figure 18.
Figure 18.
Formation of vascular bundles by canalization.The arrows indicate the direction of auxin flow and the width of the arrow is proportionate to the capacity of a cell to transport auxin. (A) Most cells have a similar capacity to transport auxin. (B) Increased auxin flow in some cells leads to an increase in their capacity to transport auxin. (C) Specialization of cells to transport auxin drains auxin from the surrounding tissues and leads to vascular bundle formation.

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