The unique features of traumatic brain injury in children. review of the characteristics of the pediatric skull and brain, mechanisms of trauma, patterns of injury, complications, and their imaging findings--part 2

J Neuroimaging. 2012 Apr;22(2):e18-41. doi: 10.1111/j.1552-6569.2011.00690.x. Epub 2012 Feb 3.


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. The unique biomechanical, hemodynamical, and functional characteristics of the developing brain and the age-dependent variance in trauma mechanisms result in a wide range of age specific traumas and patterns of brain injuries. Detailed knowledge of the main primary and secondary pediatric injuries, which enhance sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis, will guide therapy and may give important information about the prognosis. In recent years, anatomical but also functional imaging methods have revolutionized neuroimaging of pediatric TBI. The purpose of this article is (1) to comprehensively review frequent primary and secondary brain injuries and (2) to give a short overview of two special types of pediatric TBI: birth related and nonaccidental injuries.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Brain / physiopathology*
  • Brain Injuries / diagnosis*
  • Brain Injuries / physiopathology
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Neuroimaging / methods*
  • Skull / injuries*