Cigarette smoking, illicit drug use, and routes of administration among heroin and cocaine users

Addict Behav. 2012 May;37(5):678-81. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.01.011. Epub 2012 Jan 17.


Cigarette smoking is ubiquitous among illicit drug users. Some have speculated that this may be partially due to similarities in the route of administration. However, research examining the relationship between cigarette smoking and routes of administration of illicit drugs is limited. To address this gap, we investigated sociodemographic and drug use factors associated with cigarette smoking among cocaine and heroin users in the Baltimore, Maryland community (N=576). Regular and heavy cigarette smokers were more likely to be White, have a history of a prior marriage, and have a lower education level. Regular smoking of marijuana and crack was associated with cigarette smoking, but not heavy cigarette smoking. Injection use was more common among heavy cigarette smokers. In particular, regular cigarette smokers were more likely to have a lifetime history of regularly injecting heroin. Optimal prevention and treatment outcomes can only occur through a comprehensive understanding of the interrelations between different substances of abuse.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Baltimore / epidemiology
  • Cocaine-Related Disorders / complications
  • Cocaine-Related Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Crack Cocaine
  • Cues
  • Female
  • Heroin Dependence / complications
  • Heroin Dependence / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Illicit Drugs*
  • Male
  • Marijuana Smoking / psychology
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Smoking / psychology
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Substance Abuse, Intravenous / epidemiology


  • Crack Cocaine
  • Illicit Drugs