The 20S particle, which is composed of the N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), soluble NSF attachment proteins (SNAPs) and the SNAP receptor (SNARE) complex, has an essential role in intracellular vesicle fusion events. Using single-particle cryo-EM and negative stain EM, we reconstructed four related three-dimensional structures: Chinese hamster NSF hexamer in the ATPγS, ADP-AlFx and ADP states, and the 20S particle. These structures reveal a parallel arrangement between the D1 and D2 domains of the hexameric NSF and characterize the nucleotide-dependent conformational changes in NSF. The structure of the 20S particle shows that it holds the SNARE complex at two interaction interfaces around the C terminus and N-terminal half of the SNARE complex, respectively. These findings provide insight into the molecular mechanism underlying disassembly of the SNARE complex by NSF.