Cited2 is a transcriptional modulator involved in various biologic processes including fetal liver hematopoiesis. In the present study, the function of Cited2 in adult hematopoiesis was investigated in conditional knockout mice. Deletion of Cited2 using Mx1-Cre resulted in increased hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) apoptosis, loss of quiescence, and increased cycling, leading to a severely impaired reconstitution capacity as assessed by 5-fluorouracil treatment and long-term transplantation. Transcriptional profiling revealed that multiple HSC quiescence- and hypoxia-related genes such as Egr1, p57, and Hes1 were affected in Cited2-deficient HSCs. Because Cited2 is a negative regulator of HIF-1, which is essential for maintaining HSC quiescence, and because we demonstrated previously that decreased HIF-1α gene dosage partially rescues both cardiac and lens defects caused by Cited2 deficiency, we generated Cited2 and HIF-1α double-knockout mice. Additional deletion of HIF-1α in Cited2-knockout BM partially rescued impaired HSC quiescence and reconstitution capacity. At the transcriptional level, deletion of HIF-1α restored expression of p57 and Hes1 but not Egr1 to normal levels. Our results suggest that Cited2 regulates HSC quiescence through both HIF-1-dependent and HIF-1-independent pathways.