1. The ability of four Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) to localize sound was determined after bilateral ablation of auditory cortex. The animals were given two tests: a "midline" test in which they had to discriminate noise bursts presented from a loudspeaker located to the left from identical noise bursts presented from a loudspeaker located to the right of midline, and a "hemifield" test in which both loudspeakers were located in their right hemifield. 2. Both of the tests were administered by the use of two different behavioral tasks: a conditioned-avoidance task in which the animals were trained to make or break contact with a water spout to indicate the location of a sound source, and a two-choice task that required the animals to walk to the source of the sound. 3. The results of both the conditioned-avoidance and the two-choice tasks demonstrated that the animals were able to perform the midline discrimination although their localization acuity was reduced. However, the animals had great difficulty in learning to walk to the source of a sound in spite of the fact that they had received previous sound-localization training in the conditioned-avoidance task. This difficulty suggested that the monkeys no longer associated the sound with a location in space. 4. The results of both the conditioned-avoidance and the two-choice tasks demonstrated that the animals were unable to discriminate the locus of a sound source when both loudspeakers were located in the same hemifield. 5. Bilateral ablation of auditory cortex results in both sensory and perceptual deficits. The presence of sensory deficits is indicated by the decreased acuity in the left-right discrimination and the inability to discriminate between two loudspeakers located in the same hemifield. The deficit in the perception of the locus of sound is indicated by the difficulty in learning to approach the source of a sound, an ability which normal monkeys exhibit without training. 6. There appear to be species' differences in the effect of auditory cortex lesions on sound localization. Although cortical lesions result in a sound-localization deficit in several species of primates and carnivores, they have little or no effect on rats.