Past asthma surveys have shown suboptimal management and control of asthma in the United States. No major survey of asthma management has been conducted since the Third Expert Panel Report for the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of asthma (August 2007). This study was designed to report asthma management and control results from the Asthma Insight and Management survey of U.S. patients and physicians. A telephone-based survey was conducted during 2009 in 2500 patients with asthma, aged ≥12 years, and 309 physicians (104 allergists, 54 pulmonologists, 101 family practitioners, and 50 internists). Patients' asthma control perceptions (71% "completely controlled" or "well controlled") were inconsistent with their NAEPP control level as determined by self-reported symptoms (29% well controlled). Patients and physicians had low expectations for effective asthma management; patients considered asthma well managed if rescue medication was used three times per week (46%), urgent care visits occurred twice per year (67%), or emergency department visits occurred once per year (60%). Asthma-related syncope, seizure, intensive care unit admission, and intubation were associated with uncontrolled asthma based on NAEPP guidelines. Respiratory specialists (allergists/pulmonologists) implemented asthma management recommendations more than other physicians surveyed. However, only 22% of patients visited a specialist for usual asthma care and 48% had never visited a specialist. Despite detailed NAEPP guidance, asthma management and control in U.S. patients is unsatisfactory. Improved asthma control assessment (impairment and risk) and implementation of NAEPP management recommendations are needed to improve asthma control and outcomes.