Relationship between attrition and neurodevelopmental impairment rates in extremely preterm infants at 18 to 24 months: a systematic review

Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012 Feb;166(2):178-84. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.616.


Objective: To assess the effect of loss to follow-up rates at 18 to 24 months on neurodevelopmental outcome statistics for infants of less than 1000 g birth weight or less than 28 weeks' gestational age.

Data sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases (January 1, 2000, to June 30, 2010).

Study selection: We searched for studies reporting outcomes of infants of less than 1000 g birth weight or less than 28 weeks' gestational age who were born after 1990.

Main exposure: Eligible articles had to report the primary outcome and follow-up rates at 18 to 24 months.

Main outcome: Our primary composite outcome of neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) was any of a mental developmental quotient 2 SDs below the mean, using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II; cerebral palsy; visual impairment; or significant hearing impairment.

Results: Of 43 publications describing outcomes at 18 to 24 months, 20 provided rates of follow-up, describing a total of 34,185 infants. The NDI rates ranged between 12.4% and 57.5%. Follow-up rates ranged between 71.6% and 100%. Higher rates of NDI were significantly correlated with greater loss to follow-up (r(2) = 0.38, P = .007). Higher rates of both NDI and loss to follow-up were seen in the United States compared with Canada, the United Kingdom, Finland, Denmark, Austria, Germany, and Australia (r(2) = 0.70, P = .001).

Conclusions: Ascertainment bias may overestimate NDI in extremely low-birth-weight or extremely low-gestational-age survivors at 18 to 24 months. Alternatively, the characteristics of different populations and health systems may contribute to higher rates of attrition and higher rates of NDI.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Cerebral Palsy / epidemiology
  • Child, Preschool
  • Developmental Disabilities / epidemiology
  • Hearing Disorders / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight*
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature*
  • Infant, Premature, Diseases / epidemiology
  • Lost to Follow-Up*
  • Vision Disorders / epidemiology
  • Visual Acuity