Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate short term and long term efficacy of a transurethral injection (TUI) using bulking agent Bulkamid for female stress and mixed urinary incontinence. The hypothesis was that the cure rate of Bulkamid may slowly decreases over time.
Design: Retrospective clinical study.
Settings: Gynecological and Obstetric Clinic, 1 LF UK and VFN, Prague.
Materials and methods: A retrospective study was performed on 25 women with urinary incontinence (stress 18; mixed 7), and 24 patients completed the study. Nineteen patients had previously undergone anti-incontinence surgery. The efficacy of TUI was evaluated 3 months (+/- 1 week) and an average of 13.5 months (range 6-30 months) after surgery. Subjective assessment of the leakage of urine was based on the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short form (ICIQ-UI SF) filled in before and three and - on average - 13.5 months after the surgery (minimum time after surgery was 6 months). Improvement in urinary incontinence was defined as a drop in the score of more than 50%. Objective assessment of leakage of urine was assessed by cough test. Ethical committee approval was obtained, and all subjects gave written informed consent to participate in the study.
Results: Mean age of patients was 69.7 (SD 16.22) years, mean body mass index (BMI) 27.56 (SD 3.42), and mean parity was 1.73 (SD 0.7). Objective assessment by cough test showed that 9/25 (36%) of patients had negative results for this test 3 months and 4/24 (16.7%) 13.5 months after the operation. Subjective assessment by the ICIQ-UI SF questionnaire showed that 7/25 (28%) of our patients were completely dry 3 months after the operation and 3/24 (12,5%) 13 months after the operation. 20/25 (80%) of patients were dry or improved 3 months after the operation and 14/24 (58.3%) 13.5 months after the operation. The mean score before the operation was 17.56 (SD 3.44), median 18; 3 months after the operation it was 5.68 (SD 5.51), median 5; and 13.5 months after the operation it was 8.25 (SD 5.49), median 7.5. The evaluation of the answers to the question "Overall, how much does leaking urine interfere with your everyday life?" showed a worsening of the situation to a statistical significant degree: 3 months after the operation the mean score was 2.38 (SD 2.28), while 13.5 months after the operation it was 3.79 (SD 2.96).
Conclusions: The hypothesis that the cure rate of Bulkamid may slowly decreases as time passes after the operation was confirmed.